La victoire

La victoire


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Victoire - Histoire

Victory Ships construits par la Commission maritime des États-Unis pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale

La vitesse maximale du Liberty était de 11 nœuds, ce qui en faisait une proie facile pour les sous-marins, donc au début de 1942, des conceptions pour un navire de 15 nœuds ont été commencées. Le premier des 534 navires Victory, le SS United Victory , a été lancé le 28 février 1944, et comme les Libertys, utilisaient des techniques de ligne de production. Les 34 navires Victory suivants ont été nommés pour chacune des nations alliées, les 218 suivants ont été nommés d'après des villes américaines, les 150 suivants ont été nommés d'après des établissements d'enseignement et les autres ont reçu des noms divers. Les transports d'attaque ont été nommés d'après les comtés, sauf un nommé d'après le secrétaire personnel du président Roosevelt, Marvin H. McIntyre.

Le navire Victory (officiellement VC2) mesurait 455 pieds de long et 62 pieds de large. Sa turbine à vapeur croisée avec engrenages à double réduction développait 6 000 (type AP2) ou 8 500 (type AP3) chevaux. Un Victory diesel, l'Emory Victory (VC2-M-AP4) a été construit. Le VC2-S-AP5 était la désignation donnée aux transports d'attaque construits pour la Marine (classe Haskell). Les trois types AP7 étaient des Victory posés en AP3 ou AP5 qui ont été annulés après le VJ Day, et achevés en tant que navires combinés passagers/cargo pour le commerce des Caraïbes.

Typiquement, les Victory étaient armés de :

Trois navires de la Victoire (Logan, Hobbs, et Canada) ont été coulés pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, tous par des kamikazes lors de l'invasion d'Okinawa. Ces Victory transportaient un total de 24 000 tonnes de munitions (54 millions de livres ou 24 000 tonnes métriques), dont la majorité des mortiers de 81 mm disponibles aux États-Unis. Cette perte a sévèrement restreint les combats pendant l'invasion.

Le SS Lane Victory à San Pedro, en Californie, est ouvert au public pour des visites, des croisières occasionnelles et peut souvent être vu dans des films et des publicités. Ce musée flottant a été nommé d'après Isaac Lane qui est né dans l'esclavage et a fondé plus tard Lane College à Jackson, Tennessee [Alex Hailey, auteur de "Roots" est un ancien élève célèbre]. L'American Victory est situé à Tampa, en Floride. Le Red Oak Victory est en cours de restauration à Richmond, en Californie, dans le cadre du musée "Rosie the Riveter".

Abréviations :
Tous les navires de la Marine sont désignés avec une désignation alphanumérique telle que AP 189
Service de transport de l'armée américaine USAT

Les numéros avant les noms sont les numéros de coque de la Commission maritime (MCV)


110 Victoire d'Aberdeen, VC2-S-AP3/AK 257 - AKS 32 Altair
760 Victoire d'Adelphi/AG 181 Adelphi, VC2-S-AP2
164 Victoire d'Adrian, VC2-S-AP3
616 Victoire d'Aiken, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT/AP 188
42 Victoire d'Alamo, VC2-S-AP3
624 Victoire d'Albion, VC2-S-AP2
876 Alcoa Cavalier, VC2-S1-AP7
877 Tondeuse Alcoa, VC2-S1-AP7
745 Victoire d'Alfred, VC2-S-AP2/AG 180 Antioche
81 Victoire de l'Alhambra, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
762 Victoire d'Allegheny, VC2-S-AP2
43 APA 127 Allendale, VC2-S-AP5
692 Victoire d'Alma, VC2-S-AP3
841 Victoire d'Altoona, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
801 Victoire d'Amarillo, VC2-S-AP2
792 Victoire américaine, VC2-S-AP2/AG 185 Carthage
163 Victoire d'Ames, VC2-S-AP3
770 Victoire d'Amherst, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
72 Victoire d'Anadarko, VC2-S-AP2
574 Victoire d'ancrage, VC2-S-AP2
584 Victoire Anniston, VC2-S-AP2
816 Victoire d'Antioche, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
162 Appleton Victory, VC2-S-AP3/USAT - AK 240 Pvt. John R. Towle
41 Victoire d'Arcadie, VC2-S-AP3 /AF 63 Asterion
44 APA 128 Arénac, VC2-S-AP5
45 APA 129 Arlington, VC2-S-AP5/Marvin H. McIntyre
764 Victoire d'Asbury, VC2-S-AP2
11 Victoire d'Atchison, VC2-S-AP3
855 Victoire d'Atlantic City, VC2-S-AP2
46 APA 130 Attala, VC2-S-AP5
642 Victoire d'Attleboro, VC2-S-AP2
814 APA 149 Audubon, VC2-S-AP5
755 Victoire Augustana, VC2-S-AP2
525 Australie Victoire, VC2-S-AP3

47 APA 131 Bandera, VC2-S-AP5
630 Victoire de Bardstown, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT VC2-S-AP2
742 Victoire de Barnard, VC2-S-AP2
48 APA 132 Barnwell, VC2-S-AP5
Victoire de la barre 844, VC2-S-AP2
76 Victoire de Bartlesville, VC2-S-AP2
787 Victoire Bates, VC2-S-AP2
846 Baton Rouge Victoire, VC2-S-AP2
716 Victoire de Battle Creek, VC2-S-AP2
772 Victoire Baylor, VC2-S-AP2
580 Victoire de Béatrice, VC2-S-AP2
774 Victoire du castor, VC2-S-AP2
49 APA 133 Beckham, VC2-S-AP5
540 AK 231 Victoire de Bedford, VC2-S-AP2
92 Belgique Victoire, VC2-S-AP3
701 Victoire Bellingham VC2-S-AP3
111 Victoire Beloit, VC2-S-AP3/USAT
734 Victoire de Bérée, VC2-S-AP2
815 APA 150 Bergen, VC2-S-AP5
551 Victoire de Berkeley, VC2-S-AP2 /USAT
756 Victoire aux baies, VC2-S-AP2
715 Victoire de Berwyn, VC2-S-AP2
806 Victoire Bessemer, VC2-S-AP2/AG 186 Bessemer
861 APA 237 - LPA 237 Bexar, VC2-S-AP5
848 Victoire de Biddeford, VC2-S-AP2
873 Billings Victoire, VC2-S-AP3
573 APA 225 Bingham, VC2-S-AP5
698 Victoire de Binghampton, VC2-S-AP3
50 APA 134 Fade, VC2-S-AP5
805 Victoire Bloomington, VC2-S-AP2
621 Blue Island Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
613 Blue Ridge Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
16 victoire Bluefield, VC2-S-AP3
874 Victoire de Boise, VC2-S-AP3
680 APA 234 Bollinger, VC2-S-AP5
51 APA 135 Bosque, VC2-S-AP5
52 APA 136 Botetourt, VC2-S-AP5
681 APA 235 Bottineau, VC2-S-AP5
536 AK 227 Victoire de rocher, VC2-S-AP2
588 victoire de Bowdoin, VC2-S-AP2
53 APA 137 Bowie, VC2-S-AP5
811 Bowling Green Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT - AK 252 Lieutenant Robert Craig
151 Victoire de Bozeman, VC2-S-AP3
875 Victoire Brainerd, VC2-S-AP3
650 Brandon Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
54 APA 138 Braxton, VC2-S-AP5
8 Victoire du Brésil, VC2-S-AP3
598 Victoire de Brigham, VC2-S-AP2
88 victoire britannique, VC2-S-AP3
55 APA 139 Broadwater, VC2-S-AP5
860 APA 236 Bronx, VC2-S-AP5
56 APA 140 Brooking, VC2-S-AP5
171 victoire brune, VC2-S-AP3
57 APA 141 Buckingham, VC2-S-AP5
728 Victoire de Bucknell, VC2-S-AP2
543 AK 234 Victoire de Bucyrus, VC2-S-AP2
721 Victoire Burbank, VC2-S-AP2

834 Victoire C. C. N. Y., VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
780 Victoire de Calvin, VC2-S-AP2
93 victoire du Canada, VC2-S-AP3
765 Victoire de Canton, VC2-S-AP2
183 Victoire capitale, VC2-S-AP3/AG 172 Phoenix
738 Victoire Carleton, VC2-S-AP2
27 Victoire de Carroll, VC2-S-AP3
710 Victoire de Carthage, VC2-S-AP2
706 Victoire Catawba, VC2-S-AP2
77 Victoire de Cedar Rapids, VC2-S-AP2
644 Victoire de Central Falls, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
736 Victoire centrale, VC2-S-AP2
78 Victoire Chanute, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
615 Chapel Hill Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
697 Victoire de Chelsea, VC2-S-AP3
1 victoire en Chine, VC2-S-AP3
733 Victoire de la Citadelle, VC2-S-AP2
102 Victoire de Claremont, VC2-S-AP3
684 Victoire Clark, VC2-S-AP3
888 Victoire de Clarksburg, VC2-S-AP2 /AG 183 Clarksburg
80 victoire de Clarksdale, VC2-S-AP2 /USAT
629 Victoire de Clarksville, VC2-S-AP2
612 Claymont Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
58 APA 142 Clearfield, VC2-S-AP5
583 Victoire de Clearwater, VC2-S-AP2
59 APA 143 Clermont, VC2-S-AP5
60 APA 144 Clinton, VC2-S-AP5
32 Victoire de Clovis, VC2-S-AP3
636 Coaldale Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
69 Victoire de Cody, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
189 Coe Victoire, VC2-S-AP3
153 Victoire de Coeur d'Alene, VC2-S-AP3
695 Victoire de Coffeyville, VC2-S-AP3
61 APA 145 Colbert, VC2-S-AP5
84 Colby Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
170 Victoire Colgate, VC2-S-AP3
62 APA 146 Collingsworth, VC2-S-AP5
10 Victoire Colombie, VC2-S-AP3, /AK 260 Bételgeuse
575 Victoire de Colorado Springs, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
783 Victoire de l'Union Cooper, VC2-S-AP2
778 Victoire de Cornell, VC2-S-AP2
529 Victoire du Costa Rica, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
812 APA 147 Cottle, VC2-S-AP5
Victoire de 890 Council Bluffs, VC2-S-AP2
103 Victoire de Cranston, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
178 Victoire Creighton, VC2-S-AP3
813 APA 148 Crockett, VC2-S-AP5
530 Victoire de Cuba, VC2-S-AP3
86 Victoire de la Tchécoslovaquie, VC2-S-AP3/USAT -AKV 3 -AK 274 -AG 170 Lieutenant James E. Robinson

21 Dalton Victory, VC2-S-AP3 /AK 256/AGM 5 Sunnyvale
862 APA 238 Danois, VC2-S-AP5
125 APA 159 Foncé, VC2-S-AP5
169 Victoire de Dartmouth, VC2-S-AP3
172 Victoire Davidson, VC2-S-AP3
727 Victoire De Pauw, VC2-S-AP2
595 Victoire Denison, VC2-S-AP2
126 APA 160 Deuel, VC2-S-AP5
550 Devils Lake Victory, VC2-S-AP2
127 APA 161 Dickens, VC2-S-AP5
83 Victoire Dickinson, VC2-S-AP2
96 Victoire dominicaine, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
700 Dothan Victoire, VC2-S-AP3
74 Victoire Douglas, VC2-S-AP2
757 Victoire de Drake, VC2-S-AP2
128 APA 162 Dessiné, VC2-S-AP5
691 Drew Victory/AG 173 Provo VC2-S-AP3
744 Drexel Victoire, VC2-S-AP2
761 Victoire de Drury, VC2-S-AP2
731 Victoire du duc, VC2-S-AP2
549 Victoire Durango, VC2-S-AP2
19 Victoire de Durham, VC2-S-AP3

763 Victoire d'Earlham, VC2-S-AP2
645 East Point Victory, VC2-S-AP2
129 APA 163 Eastland, VC2-S-AP5
130 APA 164 Edgecombe, VC2-S-AP5
131 APA 165 Effingham, VC2-S-AP5
600 Victoire El Reno, VC2-S-AP2
95 Victoire du Salvador, VC2-S-AP3
577 Elgin Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT Pvt. Charles N. De Glopper
548 Victoire d'Elko, VC2-S-AP2
105 Victoire d'Elmira, VC2-S-AP3
654 Victoire d'Emory, VC2-M-AP4
712 Victoire d'Enid, VC2-S-AP2
112 Victoire Escanaba, VC2-S-AP3/AF 57 Regulus
526 Victoire de l'Éthiopie, VC2-S-AP3/AK 281 Victoria
618 Victoire d'Eufala, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT

614 Fairmont Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
648 Victoire de Fayetteville, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
704 Victoire de Fenn, VC2-S-AP2
749 Victoire de Fisk, VC2-S-AP2
71 victoire de Flagstaff, VC2-S-AP2
132 APA 166 Fond du Lac, VC2-S-AP5
732 Victoire Fordham/USAT VC2-S-AP2
602 Victoire Frederick, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
133 APA 167 Pierre de taille, VC2-S-AP5
625 Victoire Frontenac, VC2-S-AP2
622 victoire de Frostburg, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
174 Victoire Furman, VC2-S-AP3/AK 280 Furman

134 APA 168 Gauge, VC2-S-AP5
22 Victoire de Gainsville, VC2-S-AP3
135 APA 169 Gallatine, VC2-S-AP5
653 Georgetown Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
863 APA 239 Glynn, VC2-S-AP5
688 Victoire de Gonzague, VC2-S-AP3
136 APA 170 Gosper, VC2-S-AP5
826 Goucher Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT - AP 191 Sgt. Howard E. Woodford
33 Grange Victory, VC2-S-AP3 /USAT - AKV 4 - AK 275 Pvt. Joseph F. Merrell
137 APA 171 Granville, VC2-S-AP5
717 Victoire de Great Falls, VC2-S-AP2
2 Victoire de la Grèce, VC2-S-AP3
714 Greeley Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AG 187 Milford
159 victoire de Green Bay, VC2-S-AP3
18 Victoire de Greenville, VC2-S-AP3 /AK 237
722 Victoire de Gretna, VC2-S-AP2
138 APA 172 Grimes, VC2-S-AP5
729 Victoire de Grinnell, VC2-S-AP2
750 Grove City Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT
533 Victoire du Guatemala, VC2-S-AP3/USAT
838 Victoire de Gustave, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT

634 Victoire de Hagerstown, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
532 Victoire d'Haïti, VC2-S-AP3/AK 238/AGM 3 Longview
581 Victoire Halaula, VC2-S-AP2
707 Victoire de Hamilton, VC2-S-AP2
839 Victoire Hampden-Sydney, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
579 Victoire d'Hannibal, VC2-S-AP2
864 APA 240 Harnett, annulé VC2-S-AP5
724 victoire de Harvard, VC2-S-AP2
25 APA 117 Haskell, VC2-S-AP5
547 Hastings Victory, VC2-S-AP2 /USAT - AK 254 Sgt. Truman Kimbro
809 Victoire de Hattiesburg, VC2-S-AP2
832 Haverford Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
865 APA 241 Hempstead, annulé VC2-S-AP5
26 APA 118 Hendry, VC2-S-AP5
113 Hibbing Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AF 56 Denebola
851 High Point Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AG 189 Rollins
28 APA 119 Highlands, VC2-S-AP5
708 Hillsdale Victory/USAT VC2-S-AP2
30 APA 120 Hinsdale, VC2-S-AP5
705 Victoire Hobart, VC2-S-AP2/AG 190 Webster
599 victoire de Hobbs, VC2-S-AP2
34 APA 121 Hocking, VC2-S-AP5
531 Victoire du Honduras, VC2-S-AP3
828 Hood Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
751 Espoir Victoire, VC2-S-AP2
822 Howard Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
754 victoire du chasseur, VC2-S-AP2
139 APA 173 Hyde, VC2-S-AP5

527 Victoire de l'Inde, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
94 Victoire iranienne, VC2-S-AP3/AG 167 - AGTR 167 - AGTR 4 Belmont
528 victoire en Irak, VC2-S-AP3
866 APA 242 Iredell/Alcoa Corsair, VC2-S1-AP7

699 Victoire Jackson, VC2-S-AP3
165 Victoire de Jefferson City, VC2-S-AP3
67 Victoire de Jéricho, VC2-S-AP2
140 APA 174 Jerauld, VC2-S-AP5
114 Joliet Victoire, VC2-S-AP3/AGS 23 Michelson
12 Victoire de Joplin, VC2-S-AP3

141 APA 175 Karnes, VC2-S-AP5
157 victoire Kelso, VC2-S-AP3
35 APA 122 Kenton, VC2-S-AP5
795 victoire de Kenyon, VC2-S-AP2
142 APA 176 Kershaw, VC2-S-AP5
827 Kings Point Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
143 APA 177 Kingsbury, VC2-S-AP5
20 victoire Kingsport, VC2-S-AP3 /USAT - AK 239
638 Kingston Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
36 APA 123 Kittson, VC2-S-AP5
184 victoire de Knox, VC2-S-AP3/AGM 7 Huntsville
154 Victoire Kodiak, VC2-S-AP3
620 Victoire Kokomo, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
68 victoire de Koloa, VC2-S-AP2

623 La Crosse Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
161 La Grande Victoire , VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
38 APA 124 La Grange, VC2-S-AP5
117 APA 151 La Porte, VC2-S-AP5
643 Victoire de Laconie, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
752 Victoire Lafayette, VC2-S-AP2
601 Victoire de Lahaina, VC2-S-AP2
631 Lake Charles Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
718 Lakeland Victory, VC2-S-AP2
545 AK 236 Victoire de Lakewood, VC2-S-AP2
144 APA 178 Atterrisseur, VC2-S-AP5
794 Lane Victory, VC2-S-AP2
39 APA 125 Lanier, VC2-S-AP5
723 Victoire de Laredo, VC2-S-AP2
538 AK 229 Victoire de Las Vegas, VC2-S-AP2
118 APA 152 Latimer, VC2-S-AP5
145 APA 179 Lauderdale, VC2-S-AP5
119 APA 153 Laurens, VC2-S-AP5
146 APA 180 Lavaca, VC2-S-AP5
185 Victoire Lawrence, VC2-S-AP3
535 Victoire de la Légion, VC2-S-AP2
775 Lehigh Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT Lt. Bernard J. Ray
663 APA 195 Lenawee, VC2-S-AP5
148 Victoire de Lewiston, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT, VC2-S-AP3
13 Victoire Lincoln, VC2-S-AP3 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
766 Victoire de Lindenwood, VC2-S-AP2/AG 184 Clemson
689 Victoire de Linfield, VC2-S-AP3
664 APA 196 Loban, VC2-S-AP5
582 Victoire Logan, VC2-S-AP2
156 Victoire de Loma, VC2-S-AP3
147 Victoire de Longview, VC2-S-AP3
120 APA 154 Lowndes, VC2-S-AP5
739 Victoire Loyola, VC2-S-AP2
665 APA 197 Lubbock, VC2-S-AP5
17 Luray Victoire, VC2-S-AP3
90 Victoire luxembourgeoise, VC2-S-AP3
867 APA 243 Lucerne, annulé VC2-S-AP5
121 APA 155 Lycoming, VC2-S-AP5
853 Victoire de Lynchburg, VC2-S-AP2
847 Lynn Victoire, VC2-S-AP2/AG 182 Lynn

819 M. I. T. Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT Lieutenant Alexander R. Nininger
188 Victoire de Macalester, VC2-S-AP3
702 Victoire MacMurray, VC2-S-AP2
603 Victoire du Madawaska, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
868 APA 244 Madeia, annulé VC2-S-AP5
667 APA 199 - LPA 199 Magoffin, VC2-S-AP5
637 Victoire de la ville de Mahanoy, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
607 Victoire Malden, VC2-S-AP2
109 Victoire Mandan, VC2-S-AP3/USAT -AKV 5 AK 276 Sgt. Jack J. Pendleton
539 AK 230 Victoire Manderson, VC2-S-AP2
872 Victoire Mankato, VC2-S-AP3
668 Marathon APA 200, VC2-S-AP5
869 APA 245 Maricopa, annulé VC2-S-AP5
821 Maritime Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT Pvt. Frédéric C. Murphy
753 Victoire Marquette, VC2-S-AP2
823 Marshall Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT - AP 189 Lt Raymond O. Beaudoin
106 victoire de Marshfield, VC2-S-AP3/AK 282 Marshfield
768 Maryville Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
578 Victoire Massillon, VC2-S-AP2
541 AK 232 Victoire de Mayfield, VC2-S-AP2
666 APA 198 McCracken, VC2-S-AP5
870 APA 246 McLennan, annulé, VC2-S-AP5
871 APA 247 Mecklembourg, annulé, VC2-S-AP5
586 Victoire de la Médina, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
669 APA 201 Ménard, VC2-S-AP5
670 APA 202 Meniffée, VC2-S-AP5
591 Victoire Mercer, VC2-S-AP2/AG 179 Haverford
799 Victoire de Meredith, VC2-S-AP2
24 victoire méridienne, VC2-S-AP3
671 APA 203 Meriwether, VC2-S-AP5
886 Victoire Mesa, VC2-S-AP2
7 Victoire du Mexique, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
726 Victoire de Middlebury, VC2-S-AP2
693 Victoire du Middlesex, VC2-S-AP3/AG 174 Cheyenne
690 Midland Victory, VC2-S-AP3
555 APA 207 Mifflin, VC2-S-AP5
635 Milford Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
122 APA 156 Mellette, VC2-S-AP5
741 Mills Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT - AK 244 Sgt. Morris E. Crain
559 APA 211 Missoula, VC2-S-AP5
149 Victoire Minot, VC2-S-AP3
585 Victoire de Moline, VC2-S-AP2
79 Victoire de Monroe, VC2-S-AP2
610 Victoire Montclair, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
560 APA 212 Montrose, VC2-S-AP5
632 Victoire de Morgantown, VC2-S-AP2
730 Victoire du mont Holyoke, VC2-S-AP2
561 APA 213 Rail de montage, VC2-S-AP5
837 Victoire de Muhlenberg, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
576 Victoire Muncie, VC2-S-AP2

820 N. Y. U. Victoire, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
107 Victoire Nampa, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/AK 258 - AKS 33 Antares
123 APA 157 -AK 258 -AKS 33 Napa, VC2-S-AP5
843 victoire de Nashua, VC2-S-AP2
562 APA 214 Natrona, VC2-S-AP5
15 Victoire Navajo, VC2-S-AP3
563 APA 215 - LPA 215 Navarro, VC2-S-AP5
564 APA 216 Neshoba, VC2-S-AP5
91 Victoire des Pays-Bas, VC2-S-AP3
639 Victoire de New Bern, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
565 APA 217 Nouveau Kent, VC2-S-AP5
850 Victoire de la Nouvelle Rochelle, VC2-S-AP2
759 Victoire du Nouveau Monde, VC2-S-AP2
6 victoire néo-zélandaise, VC2-S-AP3
124 APA 158 Newberry, VC2-S-AP5
711 victoire de Newberry, VC2-S-AP2
542 AK 233 Victoire de Newcastle, VC2-S-AP2
791 Niagara Victory, VC2-S-AP2
100 victoire Niantic, VC2-S-AP3/AGM 6 Watertown
534 Victoire du Nicaragua, VC2-S-AP3
566 APA 218 Noble, VC2-S-AP5
807 Victoire de North Platte, VC2-S-AP2
703 Victoire du Nord-Est, VC2-S-AP2
173 Victoire du Nord-Ouest, VC2-S-AP3
696 Norwalk Victory/AK 279 Norwalk VC2-S-AP3
89 Norvège Victoire, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
769 Victoire de Norwich, VC2-S-AP2
175 Victoire Notre-Dame, VC2-S-AP3

592 Victoire d'Oberlin, VC2-S-AP2
619 Victoire d'Ocala, VC2-S-AP2
784 Victoire occidentale, VC2-S-AP2
655 APA 187 Oconto, VC2-S-AP5
687 Victoire d'Oglethorpe, VC2-S-AP3
567 APA 219 Okaloosa, VC2-S-AP5
568 APA 220 -LPA 220 Okanogan, VC2-S-AP5
656 APA 188 Olmsted, VC2-S-AP5
569 APA 221 Oneida, VC2-S-AP5
609 Oneida Vidtory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
808 Victoire d'Oshkosh, VC2-S-AP2
788 Victoire Ouachita, VC2-S-AP2
719 Victoire d'Owensboro, VC2-S-AP2/USAT - AK 253 Pvt. Joe E. Mann/AGA 4 Richfield
657 APA 189 Oxford, VC2-S-AP5

606 Victoire de Pachaug, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
800 Victoire du Pacifique, VC2-S-AP2
168 Victoire de Paducah, VC2-S-AP3
746 Victoire panaméricaine, VC2-S-AP2
9 Victoire du Panama, VC2-S-AP3
748 Parc de la Victoire, VC2-S-AP2
854 Victoire de Parkersburg, VC2-S-AP2
856 Pass Christian Victory, VC2-S-AP2
885 Victoire de Saint-Pétersbourg, VC2-S-AP2
5 Victoire des Philippines, VC2-S-AP3
758 Victoire Phillips, VC2-S-AP2
570 APA 222 - LPA 222 Pickaway, VC2-S-AP5
658 APA 190 Pickens, VC2-S-AP5
150 Pierre Victoire, VC2-S-AP3
802 victoire de Pine Bluff, VC2-S-AP2
571 APA 223 Pitt, VC2-S-AP5
633 Pittston Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
99 victoire de Plymouth, VC2-S-AP3
87 Pologne Victoire, VC2-S-AP3
31 Victoire Pomona, VC2-S-AP3 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
659 APA 191 Pondera, VC2-S-AP5
628 Victoire de Pontotoc, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
782 Victoire Pratt, VC2-S-AP2
587 Victoire de Princeton, VC2-S-AP2/AG 188 Radcliffe
537 AK 228 Victoire de Provo, VC2-S-AP2
740 Victoire Purdue, VC2-S-AP2

789 victoire des reines, VC2-S-AP2
115 Victoire Quinault, VC2-S-AP3

743 Victoire de Radcliffe, VC2-S-AP2/USAT - AK 242 Le Sgt. Andrew Miller
572 APA 224 Randall, VC2-S-AP5
672 APA 226 Rawlins, VC2-S-AP5
544 AK 235 Chêne Rouge Victoire, VC2-S-AP2
181 Victoire des roseaux, VC2-S-AP3
767 Victoire Rensselaer, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
673 APA 227 Renville, VC2-S-AP5
797 Victoire du riz, VC2-S-AP2
777 Rider Victory, VC2-S-AP2
709 Victoire Ripon, VC2-S-AP2
647 Rock Hill Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
160 Rock Springs Victoire, VC2-S-AP3
674 APA 228 Rockbridge, VC2-S-AP5
675 APA 229 Rockingham, VC2-S-AP5
676 APA 230 Rockwell, VC2-S-AP5
101 Rockland Victory, VC2-S-AP3/USAT/AK 259 Alcor
835 Rollins Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
804 Victoire de Roswell, VC2-S-AP2
651 Victoire de Rushville, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
82 Victoire Rutgers, VC2-S-AP2
660 APA 192 Rutland, VC2-S-AP5
104 Victoire de Rutland, VC2-S-AP3

152 Victoire de Saginaw, VC2-S-AP3
677 APA 231 Sainte-Croix, VC2-S-AP5
40 APA 126 St. Mary’s, VC2-S-AP5
546 Victoire de Salina, VC2-S-AP2
889 Victoire de San Angelo, VC2-S-AP2
713 Victoire de San Mateo, VC2-S-AP2
678 APA 232 San Saba, VC2-S-AP5
661 APA 193 Sanborn, VC2-S-AP5
662 APA 194 LPA 194 Sandoval, VC2-S-AP5
773 Victoire de Santa Clara, VC2-S-AP2
14 Victoire de Sapulpa, VC2-S-AP3
552 APA 204 Sarasota, VC2-S-AP5
627 Sedalia Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
23 Victoire de Selma, VC2-S-AP3
686 Seton Hall Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AGM 8 roues
679 APA 233 Sevier, VC2-S-AP5
29 Victoire de Sharon, VC2-S-AP3
831 victoire de Sheepshead Bay, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
553 APA 205 Sherburne, sentinelle de gamme VC2-S-AP5/AGM 22
554 APA 206 Sibley, VC2-S-AP5
108 Silverbow Victoire, VC2-S-AP3
182 Victoire Simmons, VC2-S-AP3/AG 168 - AGTR 168 - AGTR 5 Liberté
70 Victoire de Sioux Falls, VC2-S-AP2
116 Victoire Skagway, VC2-S-AP3
685 Skidmore Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AG 160/AGM 1 Range Tracker
824 Smith Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
97 Victoire de l'Afrique du Sud, VC2-S-AP3
694 Victoire de South Bend, VC2-S-AP3/AGS 21 Bowditch
786 Victoire du sud-ouest, VC2-S-AP2
845 Victoire de Spartanburg, VC2-S-AP2
605 St. Albans Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
849 Victoire Saint-Augustin, VC2-S-AP2
158 Victoire Saint-Cloud, VC2-S-AP3
596 Victoire de Saint-Jean, VC2-S-AP2
735 St. Lawrence Victory, VC2-S-AP2/AK 255 Pvt. Léonard Brostrom
641 Stamford Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
830 Stetson Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT -AP 192 Le Sgt. Sylvestre Antolak
825 Stevens Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT - AP 187 Pvt. Joe P. Martinez
737 victoire de Swarthmore, VC2-S-AP2

556 APA 208 -LPA 208 Talladega, VC2-S-AP5
73 Victoire Taos, VC2-S-AP2 /USAT
557 APA 209 Tazewell, VC2-S-AP5
558 APA 210 Telfair, VC2-S-AP5
179 Victoire du Temple, VC2-S-AP3
166 Terre Haute Victoire, VC2-S-AP3
75 victoire Texarkana, VC2-S-AP2 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
611 Victoire Towanda, VC2-S-AP2
810 Trinidad Victoire, VC2-S-AP2
747 Victoire de la Trinité, VC2-S-AP2
803 Victoire Tucson, VC2-S-AP2
771 Touffes Victoire, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
593 Victoire de Tulane, VC2-S-AP2
829 Tusculum Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
682 Tuskegee Victory, VC2-S-AP3/AGS 22 Dutton
167 Victoire de Twin Falls, VC2-S-AP3/AGM 11 - AGS 37 Twin Falls

3 Victoire de l'URSS, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
683 Victoire de l'Union, VC2-S-AP3/AF 64 Persée
4 Victoire des États-Unis, VC2-S-AP3 /WSAT (1597)/USAT
85 Victoire unie, VC2-S-AP3

617 Victoire de Valdosta, VC2-S-AP2
781 Victoire Vanderbilt, VC2-S-AP2
818 Vassar Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
785 Victoire de Villanova, VC2-S-AP2
597 Victoire de Virginia City, VC2-S-AP2

796 Victoire Wabash, VC2-S-AP2/USAT -AK 241 Pvt. François X. McGraw
37 Victoire Waco, VC2-S-AP3
594 victoire de la forêt de sillage, VC2-S-AP2
720 Victoire Waltham, VC2-S-AP2
887 Victoire Warwick, VC2-S-AP2
842 Waterbury Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
852 Waterville Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT -AK 251 Lieutenant George W. G. Royce
840 Waycross Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
793 Victoire Wayne, VC2-S-AP2
833 Webster Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
177 Victoire Wellesley, VC2-S-AP3
589 Victoire Wesleyenne, VC2-S-AP2
155 Victoire de West Lynn, VC2-S-AP3
649 Victoire Westbrook, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
608 Victoire de l'Ouest, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
186 Victoire de la Réserve de l'Ouest, VC2-S-AP3
176 Victoire de Westminster, VC2-S-AP3/WSAT (1597)/USAT
776 Victoire de Wheaton, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
187 Victoire Whitman, VC2-S-AP3
798 Victoire Whittier, VC2-S-AP2
180 victoire de Willamette, VC2-S-AP3
652 William et Mary Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
817 Williams Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
836 Wilson Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT - AP 190 Pvt. Sadao S. Munemori
640 Winchester Victory, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
790 Victoire Winthrop, VC2-S-AP2
646 Victoire de Woodbridge, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT
604 Victoire de Woodstock, VC2-S-AP2
779 Victoire de Wooster, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT

590 Xavier Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT

725 Yale Victory, VC2-S-AP2/USAT - AK 243 Le Sgt. Archer T. Gammon
98 Victoire de la Yougoslavie, VC2-S-AP3

626 Victoire de Zanesville, VC2-S-AP2/WSAT (1597)/USAT


Sources:
Sawyer, L.A. & Mitchell, W.H. : Victory Ships and Tanks (David & Charles, 1974)
Fahey, James C. : Les navires et aéronefs de la flotte américaine, New York : Navires et aéronefs, 1945
Silverstone, Paul H. : Navires de guerre américains de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Londres : Ian Allan, 1968
Lenton, H. T. & Colledge, J. J. : Navires de guerre de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Londres : Ian Allen
Jane's Fighting Ships, diverses éditions
Combat Fleets of the World, diverses éditions


Histoire

AUJOURD'HUI
Aujourd'hui, Mount Victory s'est forgé une réputation de destination pour le shopping d'antiquités et d'artisanat, un charmant village piétonnier avec un quartier commercial historique où les gens viennent faire du shopping, manger, regarder le train, profiter d'un rythme plus lent et des gens sympathiques. Les événements annuels incluent la chasse aux œufs de Pâques de Village Park, le salon des voitures anciennes du Memorial Day et les portes ouvertes de Noël de la boutique d'antiquités. Mount Victory comprend également l'école Ridgemont, ainsi que 2 églises : l'église méthodiste et l'église du Christ. La ville comprend également 4 restaurants, The Belle Acre, Gopher Pizza, The Plaza Inn et le Mt. Victory Drive Thru. Mount Victory se trouve sur la State Route 31 très fréquentée et est traversé par une ligne ferroviaire principale CRX.

Cliquez pour agrandir la carte des premières plaques

NOS PIONNIERS
D'autres pionniers ont commencé à s'installer dans la région, mais nous nous concentrerons sur les frères Dille : Cyrus, Amos, Abraham et Samuel. Cyrus arriva dans le canton en novembre 1830 et acheta un terrain sur lequel le mont Victory devait être fondé. Il avait 11 enfants, le premier-né étant Ezra, qui allait plus tard aménager la ville de Mt. Victory. Samuel est venu ici en même temps que Cyrus en tant qu'homme célibataire, est rentré chez lui pour se marier et a vécu dans le canton de Hale pendant une courte période. Il a ensuite déménagé dans l'Iowa. Abraham a déménagé ici en 1834 et y est resté pour le reste de sa vie qui s'est terminée en 1883. Amos est arrivé ici en 1884 mais n'y est resté que peu de temps. En 1833, le comté grandit et il est séparé du comté de Logan pour organiser son propre gouvernement. Kenton a été choisi comme siège du comté et les premières élections des fonctionnaires du comté ont eu lieu la même année. Après tout cela, la colonisation du canton de Hale s'est déroulée plus rapidement.

Certains des premiers pionniers étaient : Daniel Baldwin 1835 Jonathan Marsh 1835 Thomas Dunson 1835 Harvey Buckminster 1838 Il ouvrit une auberge le long de la route de Grassy Point Abner Snoddy 1840 Thomas McCall 1840 Défriché 150 acres entre Mt. Victory et Kenton Peter Marsh 1842 Moses Kennedy 1844 s'installa le long de Panther Creek Obediah Williams 1848 a acheté une parcelle au nord de Rush Creek. D'autres étaient Harrison Lake, Simon Schertzer, Christopher Richardson, John Richardson, Barnet Richardson, Uriah Baldwin et C. Copp. La création d'une entreprise était naturellement lente avant que les villes ne soient fondées et que les routes ne soient construites. Dans ce canton, les affaires se composaient en grande partie de l'hôtel près de Grassy Point et de deux moulins. Vers 1838 à 1840, Moses Kennedy a construit une scierie et a ajouté plus tard un moulin à maïs sur Panther Creek, et en 1849, James Smith a ouvert un moulin le long de la branche sud de Panther Creek. Au fur et à mesure que la population augmentait, le problème d'un lieu de repos définitif pour les morts a été résolu en enterrant dans la ferme familiale.

En 1837, le cimetière d'Eddy a été ouvert et beaucoup ont trouvé que c'était leur lieu de sépulture jusqu'à ce que le cimetière de Dille soit ouvert en 1841 sur un terrain appartenant à Cyrus Dille. La ville de Mt. Victory a grandi autour de ce petit cimetière qui est situé derrière Richard Foreman’s sur East Marion Street. Le fondateur de la ville, Ezra Dille, y est enterré ainsi que son père, Cyrus Dille Sr.

Une autre nécessité, car la région attirait plus de colons, était celle d'une école. Le premier a ouvert le 1er décembre 1839, dans une cabane en rondins. Enos Baldwin était le professeur. En 1840 ou 1841, une maison en rondins a été construite à l'emplacement de l'ancien Mt. Victory Stockyards. L'enseignant était soit John Elder, soit Enos Baldwin. Les services religieux ont pris la forme de réunions d'église tenues dans la maison de Lewis Andrews par un prédicateur de circuit de l'Église épiscopale méthodiste de 1832 à 1842. Cette année-là, les services ont commencé à avoir lieu dans l'école et y sont restés jusqu'à ce que des églises soient établies dans le villages de Ridgeway et Mt. Victory.

LES PREMIERS TEMPS
Les années qui ont immédiatement suivi l'entrée de l'Ohio dans l'Union le 1er mars 1803, ont été relativement paisibles dans ce qui allait devenir la communauté du mont Victory. La terre appartenait alors, par le traité de Greenville, à diverses tribus indiennes. Ils chassaient la vaste forêt, pêchaient dans les ruisseaux, cultivaient de petites quantités de maïs et pratiquaient leurs religions, laissant l'homme blanc dans ses colonies au sud relativement seul. L'homme blanc, à quelques exceptions près, s'installa vers le nord jusqu'à la ligne du traité, mais honora le caractère sacré des terres indiennes. Cette terre, cependant, était le germe d'un futur conflit avec les commerçants britanniques. Ces commerçants étaient naturellement moins qu'amicaux envers les Américains. Sur ordre de Fort Detroit, les Indiens sont encouragés à harceler les colonies américaines. C'est par l'intermédiaire de ces commerçants qu'ils se procuraient des fusils, de la grenaille et de la poudre. Ils sont devenus des alliés des Britanniques dans les différends entre la Grande-Bretagne et les Américains.

Enfin, la pratique britannique d'impressionner les marins américains dans la marine britannique a mis fin à toutes les négociations et les États-Unis ont déclaré la guerre à la Grande-Bretagne. La population de l'Ohio était maintenant de près d'un quart de million et une force considérable a été rassemblée à Cincinnati sous le général Hull, un vétéran respecté de la Révolution et maintenant gouverneur du territoire du Michigan. Il devait marcher et prendre Fort Detroit. Au cours de cette marche, Hull traversa ce qui allait devenir le comté de Hardin et détacha un colonel Duncan MacArthur pour construire un fort afin de garder sa route. Ce fort a été construit sur la rive du Scioto dans le canton de Buck en 1812. Aujourd'hui, des marqueurs indiquent l'emplacement du fort MacArthur et de Hull’s Trace. Hull réussit à s'emparer de Détroit, mais se rend peu de temps après. William Henry Harrison a ensuite dirigé une deuxième expédition à travers St. Marys et a capturé et tenu Detroit. Avec la bataille du lac Érié, la guerre a pris fin dans la région de l'Ohio.

À la fin de la guerre de 1812, Fort MacArthur est devenu un avant-poste de garnison dans le territoire indien. Les Indiens avaient été écrasés en tant que force combattante par la guerre et la mort de Tecumseh, donc le devoir du fort était probablement celui de garder une route militaire et d'offrir un refuge aux voyageurs à Détroit. En 1817, à la tête des rapides de la rivière Maumee, un traité fut signé qui céda une grande partie des terres du nord-ouest de l'Ohio au gouvernement, et le comté de Hardin devint ouvert à la colonisation. Le comté, cependant, comme il avait peu de population blanche, fut rattaché au comté de Logan jusqu'à ce qu'une augmentation du nombre de colons justifie l'établissement d'un siège de comté. C'est la même année que la première famille blanche est arrivée dans la région. Alfred Hale, en l'honneur duquel ce canton a été nommé, et son épouse Mary, situés à Fort MacArthur et y ont résidé jusqu'à la mort de Mary en 1824.

Pendant ce temps, un fils, Jonas, leur est né, le premier enfant blanc né dans le comté. Hale, étant un chasseur, ne possédait ni ne cultivait de terres. Les parents de Duncan MacArthur furent les premiers vrais colons du comté. Ils sont arrivés en 1818, ont construit une cabane et sont rentrés chez eux pour escorter leurs familles jusqu'à la propriété. Les rumeurs d'un soulèvement indien les ont tenus à l'écart pendant quatre ans, mais en 1822, ils sont revenus pour devenir des résidents permanents du canton de McDonald. Le premier colon du canton de Hale était Levi D. Tharp, qui a construit une cabane dans la partie ouest du canton près de Grassy Point en 1828. Il ne possédait aucune terre et, après plusieurs années, il a déménagé. James Andrews a été le premier propriétaire foncier permanent du canton, s'installant ici en octobre 1829 à l'âge de 24 ans. Il a défriché sa ferme et a vécu une vie longue et fructueuse.

FONDATION DE LA VILLE
En 1849, Cyrus Dille mourut et son fils aîné, Ezra, fit aménager une ville sur le domaine de son père deux ans plus tard. Le terrain devait être vendu lors d'une vente d'administrateur et Samuel McCullough, qui venait d'aménager le village de Ridgeway, tenta d'acheter le terrain à la vente publique et de le transformer en pâturage, empêchant ainsi la formation d'un village concurrent. Ezra Dille, cependant, a réussi à acheter la propriété et à son retour chez lui, Thomas McCall, qui avait acheté le terrain, lui a demandé. When informed that Ezra had been able to procure it, Mr. McCall exclaimed “Victory, Victory–We shall name the town MOUNT VICTORY!” Thomas McCall was ‘Uncle Tommy’ to those who knew him and he is credited with naming the Village of Mt. Victory. He was born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, December 10, 1810, the son of William and Elizabeth McCall.

Thomas married Judith Bloomfield, a native of Crawford County, Pennsylvania. In January, 1842, they settled in Hale Township. He lived in what is now listed as 20555 West Mansfield Road, CR 199. It was one of the first frame houses built in the mid 1800’s. William Bealer, a local cabinetmaker, helped to build this house. He told his grandsons, Clay and Cliff Bealer that when digging the basement, they unearthed skeletons of human remains believed to be the remains of the Mound Builders, the very first known settlers in Hale Township, Hardin County, Ohio. At the time of settlement, there was not a settler or improvement on the road from Mt. Victory to Kenton. The house had a trap door in the kitchen with a rug over it and a table setting on the rug and was used as a safe house for fugitive slaves making their way north on the underground railroad.

Thomas McCall helped to blaze the trail from Mt. Victory to Kenton. They cleared 150 acres of heavy forest in the area. A broad ax used in the clearing of this land is now owned by Ross Baird, great-great-grandson of Uncle Tommy McCall. He owned 311 acres of good land with the improvement of fences and buildings. Thomas was the father of 15 children with 8 surviving. They were Malissa, Lucindia, Susannah, Lewis B., William, Thomas Morris, Matilda Jane, and Solmon P. Chase. Susannah married James Clark Bird. Their children were: William Thomas, Lorena Lou, Granger Clinton, Chase L., and Bessie. Lucindia married a Bolen and had a daughter Iva Lou, who married Walter Baird, Grandfather of Ross Baird. Submitted by Daisy Bird Gillen and Evangeline Bealer.

UNDERGROUND RAILROAD and the Secret Door – a true account by the late Evangeline Bealer
During the early days of the Underground Railroad, there were in excess of 3000 slaves transported through the Coffin network of safe houses in Cincinnati. The runaways were dispatched North to members of the Williams Family and to the anti-slavery movement . Many of these people followed the Shawnee Trail toward Pickrelltown and Bellefontaine. In Pickrelltown, they were met by Asa Williams, Manhon Pickrell, and Joshua Marmon. Other Quakers and sympathizers to the cause provided safe houses. Due to the secret nature of the mission, names are difficult to obtain. The home of Asa Williams was a safe house where fugitives stayed until their strength and health improved. His home had a secret wall in the basement which appeared to be a root cellar, but was actually a nice size room that could comfortably hold six people. Obadiah Williams, son of Henry and Nancy Williams, signed on work at the Pickrelltown Mill while quite young. One of his many duties when he was a teenager was to transport grain and supplies to the Cincinnati Market. His first visit to Cincinnati, he watched human beings sold on a common auction block. To his horror, he saw families torn apart and taken to different plantations. His compassion for their plight made an impression that endured a lifetime. When he returned home he related his story to his best friend and future bride, Sarah P. Williams, daughter of Asa and Elizabeth Branson Williams. He vowed that he would do anything in his power to end such brutality.

Soon after his trip to Cincinnati, a fugitive named Meshach, ‘Mose’, Moxley came to Pickrelltown. Obadiah and Mose became very close friends. Mose was an expert gunsmith and was considered a very valuable slave. Therefore, Mose was fearful for the safety of his wife and children. After much prayer and careful planning, it was agreed that Obadiah would go to Cincinnati with supplies and attempt to find the wife and children, purchase them, bring them back to Pickrelltown to a grateful Mose. Later, the Moxley Family moved to Bellefontaine and established a gun shop. There he maintained a good business and his guns are now highly prized collectables. Other slaves that were assisted through the Pickrelltown Station were the Mendenhalls. George C. Mendenhall, a plantation owner from North Carolina, sent 28 of his slaves to Asa Williams and Joshua Marmon under the protection of his field foreman, John White. The Deed of Emancipation of George C. Mendenhall was received and recorded July 2, 1885, by Jas Luster, Clerk, Logan County, Ohio. The deed was signed by witnesses: Asa Williams Exaim Johnson John White. By order of the deed, 28 people were freed and from that day forward, they should be called Mendenhall.

This activity continued into Hardin County:
Obadiah Williams, (1821 to 1905), Sarah Williams (1820 to 1902)
On November 6, 1845, Obadiah and Sarah were married and they had eight children: Thomas Clarkson Genetta Harrison one died in infancy Esther Ann Charles Stanton Mary Edward Elven Lydia I. Together they continued to assist runaway slaves. Early in their marriage, they contrived a way to effectively answer the questions of federal agents, bounty hunters, and slave hunters without actually telling a lie. They agreed that anyone entering their home would be referred to as a ‘guest’. The young ‘conductors’ were dispatched to the Hardin County area for more efficient contact with the Old Sandusky Trail (Shawnee Trail). They purchased a tract of timberland 1 1/2 miles South of what is now Mt. Victory. The land deed dated August 2, 1848. Located on the north side of Rushcreek, a part of the Virginia Survey. The land was purchased from a soldier of the War of 1812, having been granted by President Martin Van Buren.

A temporary cabin was built about a quarter of a mile off of the Mud Pike now known as State Route 31. A new frame house was put in construction in front of the cabin. This house was equipped with a guest room where many ‘guests’ were respected for their courage and will for freedom. The new house is still occupied by a great great granddaughter, Joan Elliott Wagner, at 1948 Elliott Lane., State Route 31. The original cabin was torn down in the early 1930’s.

On one occasion, a family of fugitives had spent the night in the Guest Room. When morning came breakfast was prepared and was being eaten when Sarah glanced out the window and saw two finely dressed men on very fine horses approaching the house. With no time to waste, Obadiah walked out the door to greet the visitors and to care for their horses. He talked to them and answered their questions and told them his wife was preparing breakfast. Sarah cleared the kitchen of all evidence of the first breakfast while her guests settled down in the guest room. When the house resumed its peaceful order and breakfast was well on its way, Sarah went to the porch and motioned for everyone to come in to breakfast. Obadiah and the federal agents discussed plans for the day. They would search the forest and the banks of Rush Creek over to the next pike, now the West Mansfield Road. When the men were well out of sight, Sarah hitched the horses to a special wagon and then loaded her guests into its safety. Sarah made her way north toward the next safe house where a cabin stood. The site is now 361 South Main St., Mt. Victory. After securing the safety of her precious cargo, she returned home. She washed the bedding, cleaned the guest room, and began to prepare the evening meal. That night all was well and the federal agents slept in the same bed that the fugitive guests had slept in the night before. Many federal agents and slave hunters came to the Williams home. One agent was quoted as saying, ‘Obadiah Williams is the best slave hunter in the territory.’ However, not one fugitive was ever captured at his safe house. I really believe it was Sarah’s cooking that brought them back.
–by Evangeline Bealer, great great granddaughter of Obadiah Williams and town historian –

ANCIENT BURIAL MOUNDS (Glacial Kame Culture)
Ancient Burial Mound and its Contents, Hardin County, Ohio
Letter Written by John B. Matson. M.D. to Judge John Barr, Cleveland, December 10, 1869
Dear Sir, –In the fall of 1856, in Hardin County, Ohio, near the Bellefontaine and Indiana Railway, between Mt. Victory and Ridgeway, I commenced removing a gravel bank for the purpose of ballasting a part of the above named railroad. I learned shortly after my arrival there, that the bank was an ancient burial ground. This information caused me to examine the ground, and note discoveries.
…The mound covered an area of one and a half acres being covered with an orchard of apple trees, then in bearing…The mound was what I would call double the larger and higher part to the west. About two-thirds of the mound was embraced in this part. The eastern part, presenting the appearance of a smaller hill having been pressed against the other, leaving a depression between them of three or four feet, below the highest point of the smaller and five or six feet below a corresponding point of the larger.
…On the north side of the eastern portion, under an oak tree stump (150 years old by growths) was the remains of the largest human bones I have ever seen. The joints of the vertebra seemed as large as those of a horse… I found in this part of the mound the remains of at least fifty children, under the age of eight years some with two, others with four incisors some with eight, and others with no teeth.
Source: Howland, H. G., Atlas of Hardin county, Ohio. Philadelphia,
R. Sutton & co., 1879, pg 323 / 324
FULL ACCOUNT

Mount Victory History > EARLY SCHOOLS
The first school located in the village of Mt. Victory was ‘The Rough and Ready’ one-room schoolhouse. The building was opened to Mt. Victory and Hale Township students in 1839. It remained open until 1852, when it was replaced with a frame-structure building built on the southern side of Marion Street. That school was replaced eight years later when a school was opened at the corner of Main and Taylor Streets at what is now the Henry Martin Memorial Park. The school was moved to its present location 15 years later. The brick building had four rooms and was later enlarged to six when the high school was added. The high school was open to anyone who passed the entrance exam. By 1912, it was time to tear down the old building to make way for a new school. As one-room schools in the area closed, more students were getting their education in Mt. Victory. The brick building was called Mt. Victory-Dudley School in recognition of the Dudley Township students who attended. In 1938, the building was remodeled, with new classrooms, a cafeteria, farm shop, and gymnasium added to the existing building. In the early 1960’s, the state was pressuring smaller schools to join together.

There was much division in the community about where the school should go. Many, especially those living in the northern parts of the district, favored sending the Mt. Victory students to Kenton. Others looked to neighboring towns to join together to form a new district. Feelings ran strongly for both plans. Board of education members, Lloyd Dickinson, President Fannie Stough Dr. Robert Thomas Dick Connelly and Clay Van Atta were left to make the decisions affecting the future of the school. Thomas and Van Atta favored the Kenton proposal and brought the issue to a vote. With the vote tied at 2-2, Dickinson broke the tie by voting to remain at Mt. Victory. A plan to make Mt. Victory a part of a five-school district was presented. Mt. Victory would join Ridgeway, Byhalia, West Mansfield, and Rushsylvania to form a new district. Land was donated in the center of the five communities for the purpose of building the new school, said Stough. But the plan was rejected by officials who didn’t want the district covering three counties. While the school board attempted to determine the school’s future, there was plenty of pressure put on the members. Stough said people would telephone her house and begin telling her what they thought of her. She just laid the phone on the counter and went about her business. ‘It was terrible,’ she said. Everyone had the opinion that we needed to consolidate, Dickinson remembered. ‘So the next thing to do was to start talking with Ridgeway,’ he said. The plan was approved by both boards. The superintendent would come from Mt. Victory. Two members of the new school’s board would come from Mt. Victory and three from Ridgeway. A contest was held to decide what to call the new school. ‘I always liked Vickway,’ said Dickinson. But the Ridge from Ridgeway was added to the Mont from Mount Victory to make Ridgemont. The school colors were taken from the green of Mt. Victory Green Devils and the gold from the Ridgeway Tigers. A new mascot was needed. At a board meeting, Stough suggested Golden Gophers. ‘I liked Minnesota at that time and made the suggestion. Nobody else suggested anything else, so that was it.’

An outside consultant was named to determine which building would be the high school and which would house the elementary students. Ridgeway was named as the high school site. Mt. Victory would house grades 4-8 with the first three grades remaining in their home schools. This changed two years later when all the elementary students went to Mt. Victory and grades 7-12 attended classes in Ridgeway. In the Fall of 1993, the remodeling of the high school was completed. A large section of the old school was razed and replaced with a new facility, which includes a new gymnasium, library, classrooms, and vocational agriculture shop. Vocational education is offered to the Ridgemont students at Hi Point Career Center in Bellefontaine.

Ridgemont Elementary built in 1926 was originally located at north Elm and Taylor Street. The c.1926 building was raised in 2016.
A new Ridgemont school was built and completed in 2015 at the west end of Taylor St on farm land donated by the Elliott family. The new school combines both elementary and high school and is noted for being a model of contemporary 21st century education.

The Black and White School was built in 1886 by black families who were former slaves or descendants of slaves. It is believed to be one of the first integrated schools in Ohio. The black families invited the neighboring white children to was needed. The school still stands on the corner of SR 31 and CR 190 near the path of the Underground Railroad on the Old Sandusky Trail. It is now a private residence with a historic marker in the front yard. Submitted by Daisy Bird Gillen and Evangeline Bealer –

Mount Victory History > FIRE DEPARTMENT

Little is known about the Fire Department until about 1940. What we do know is the village had a hand-pulled piece of equipment with a stationary engine and pump. This was pulled to a fire cistern (a hole full of water with a lid) near the fire scene. The Fire Chief was Walter Thompson. Later, a Studebaker truck was purchased with a pressure tank on it that held water and soda. At a fire, caustic acid would be added. This reacted with the soda to create pressure that forced the water onto the fire. Floyd White mixed the acid with water. H. B. ‘Shorty’ Keller served as Fire Chief in the late 1930’s.

In 1942, Marlowe Simpson became Chief and Richard Strahm served as Asst. Chief. During this period, the first pumper truck was purchased in 1947 through the efforts of the Lions Club. Fire protection was then extended to Hale and Washington Townships in 1954 when the first tanker truck was purchased. The equipment was stored on East Taylor Street in the end of the brick building where Gopher Pizza is now. Marlowe Simpson stored the tank truck in LevanÍs Garage where the Drive Thru is now. When the fire station and town hall was built in 1956, the equipment was moved there. A 500 cpm. fire pumper was purchased in 1958 to replace the 1947 pumper. This truck is still in use as a reserve engine. In 1965 the original tank truck was replaced with a Ford Wilco 1500 gallon tank truck. In 1970, Dudley Township became a full member of the association by purchasing an additional 1970 Ford Wilco 1500 gallon tank truck. The name was changed to Mt. Victory Hale Washington Dudley Township Fire Association. In 1976, a new Ford Sutphen 1000 cpm. pumper was purchased necessitating the addition to the existing fire station. In 1981, Richard Strahm retired as Asst. Fire Chief and Charles Mowery filled that position. In 1982, Marlowe Simpson retired with 40 years of service as Chief. Charles Mowery then became Fire Chief with James Moore as Asst. Chief. In 1982, the grass truck was built by the firemen. No major truck purchases were made since then, but new equipment was added including self-contained breathing apparatus, turnout gear, positive pressure ventilation system, foam equipment, automatic nozzles, dump tank system, and large diameter fire hose.

In 1986, James Moore resigned as Asst. Chief and Richard Foreman filled that position. In 1999, the Mt. Victory Hale Washington Dudley Township Fire Association was dissolved and the Southeast Hardin Northwest Union Joint Fire District was created. Since the creation of a Joint Fire District, two new fire levies have passed. The Seyfert Potato Chip building on South Wheeler Street has been purchased. A custom Sutphen Quint Combination Ladder and Pumper fire truck has been purchased and an addition is being added to the Seyfert building. This will become the futurehome of the Fire Department and Ambulance Squad. Over the years, many people have served the community as firefighters. One example is Julia Foreman who has just retire as radio operator with 28 years of faithful service. The present officers are: Charles Mowery, Fire Chief Richard Foreman and Dennis Hinton, Asst. Chiefs Charles Long and Kurt Creamer, Captains Robert Kemmere and Robert Rowe, Lieutenants Robert Taylor, Safety Officer Cathy Mowery Lowery, President and Public Information Officer Serving with the above-mentioned are 20 additional dedicated men and women firefighters.

Mount Victory History > CHURCHES
METHODIST CHURCH
The first sermon ever preached in Hale Township was by Thomas B. Green, a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church at the home of Lewis Andrews in February, 1832. A class was organized at this meeting composed of James Andrews and his wife Mary, and Lewis Andrews and his wife Mary. The first family Bible and hymn book were bought by James Andrews. The Bible cost $4.00, half a monthÍs wages in that day. The first circuit preacher was Rev. Thomas Sims. About the year 1850, the Methodist Church changed and a new organization was formed. Meetings were held in the Old Rough and Ready School situated on the James Smith farm about a mile West of Mt. Victory. The place of meeting was soon changed again to a new schoolhouse East of town on the land afterward owned by W. H. Boyd. Later, the building was moved across the road and was used as a residence by Wm. P. Wooley and family. In the Fall of 1855, the meeting place was again changed to the United Brethren Church on what is now South High Street. It stayed there until 1860 when the unfinished Baptist Church was bought of Isaac Pennock for $140.00. The building which stood on the present church lot was completed and dedicated for service in 1861. This house served the people until the Spring of 1879, when it was sold to G. M. McDonald and moved off the church lot. Later, it was moved to North High Street where it again served as a church for several years, being used by different denominations.

It has since been moved to the John Willauer farm, just North of town, where it was remodeled into a barn. A substantial brick church was dedicated on the present church lot on November 30, 1879, by Dr. C. H. Payne of Delaware, Ohio, at the cost of $3300.00. After 24 years, it was decided that a larger church was needed and it was torn down in March of 1903. Material worth about $1000 was recycled into the new building. On May 3, 1903, the cornerstone was laid for the present church on North Main Street. It cost $15,000.

CHURCH OF CHRIST
In the year, 1899, the Mt. Victory Church of Christ’s sister church in the village of Ridgeway was a thriving church and its influence was felt in the Southern part of the county. In one of their Round Table Discussions which they were conducting on the subject, ‘What Was Your Call of Macedonia?’, Mrs. William Wallace, better known as ‘Aunt Mollie’, suggested to Robert Moffett, who was working for the State Board located in Cleveland, the need of having a Church of Christ in Mt. Victory. She succeeded in interesting Mr. Moffett in the project. So, we see the State Board of Ohio facing a difficult challenge in the year 1900. Meetings were conducted in the City Hall during the months of February and March. Through the efforts of evangelists, they succeeded in influencing enough people to secure a charter for the Church of Christ. Establishing this church called for a great deal of hard work and sacrifice.

The State Board supplied what was lacking in funds. For a number of years, the State Board hired the minister. Under the ministry of I. A. Randall, the debt to the State was paid and the mortgage burned. The main auditorium was completed and dedicated November 4, 1902, by Lowell Lee Carpenter. No other minister in the organization has dedicated so many churches. He had 752 to his credit. The Men’s Class, under the leadership of M. O. Harvey, felt the need for a place for social affairs and constructed the basement. As the membership increased, much difficulty was encountered in trying to instruct primaries, juniors, and adult classes in the auditorium, so a second addition was started on June 12, 1918, and it was finished in 1919. P. H. Welshimer from Canton, Ohio, rededicated the church on March 16, 1919. Mr. Welshimer was hired and he had the largest Sunday School in our organization. In 1954, the Board was looking for a suitable piece of land to build a new parsonage. It was purchased from StevensonÍs and Russel Hardin drew up the plans for the house. In November, 1954, financing and contruction began. In June 1955, the parsonage was all done and the landscaping finished. One hundred and one years have passed since opening the Church of Christ. It is a church setting on the corner of Main and North Streets beckoning all to come worship.


Our Reviews

These are very good people, I'll tell you why! I wrecked our Traverse Friday morning. It was totaled and we were stranded at home but we had to have a car. I had known the used car manager Derek Schnepp from when we bought the Traverse a little over a year ago. He got us to Alex Davidson one of the sales professionals. I told him about our issue and that we were stuck. He told us not to worry a car was on the way to get us. We made it to the lot this was Saturday and it was busy due to the sale they were having. We met Alex and even though he was still with a customer he took a moment to greet us and soon as he was done, did a great job helping us choose a 2017 Ford Fusion. We had one slight problem we were not able to close on the car that day due to our insurance working to get our Traverse paid off the bank was closed we asked if we could take the car home knowing that we put a deposit down and our bank pre-approving the loan. And we were praying for a miracle. Our luck looked like it ran out when Alex told us the car had to stay there due to policy. However, they did the unthinkable! Alex pointed out the window and said but we can give you a loaner car ( a new Equinox very nice ). We were nearly in tears we never thought a dealership would care enough to go the extra mile to help us. That simple act of kindness helped us get to work on Monday get to the bank on Tuesday to sign papers on the car and we got the car that afternoon. It was the cleanest used car we had bought in a long time. And something that doesn't happen anymore They made sure the tank was full before we drove off the lot. That did not happen when we bought our Traverse from a very popular Chevy dealership in St. Joesph the year before. We had to demand that they put enough gas in it to get to the gas station we got a quarter of a tank the detail job was not very detailed it was still in fact dirty. Integrity in the car business is everything it's what makes us want to return to that dealer when buying or servicing a vehicle. We paid 17,650 dollars for the car we bought. That's not much compared to a 60 thousand dollar truck. Often you are the second-rate customer at some dealers when buying a used car under 20 thousand bucks. But we were treated with the utmost care and respect at Victory Chevy. We are truly grateful for their care and service in making sure we were taken care of and we were able to get to work pick up the kids get groceries. That seems trivial but when you don't have a way to get there it's a big deal. You get what you pay for and we feel that we got more than a car we got a friend in Victory Chevrolet and we are so thankful for their help and we will continue to do business with them again. We were so impressed with their staff and how they treated people. I applied for a tech job there. Ken the service manager is a great person who cares about his customers and it reflects in the rest of his team I have not met one person working there that wasn't kind, respectful, or helpful, and willing to go out of their way to help! Thank You all for coming to our rescue in our time of need. We are very grateful to you all! You all are the best! Best Regards Tucker and Sharon Herndon proud customers,


Notre histoire

Sharon Daugherty is the Founding Pastor of Victory in Tulsa, Oklahoma, which she, along with her late husband, Pastor Billy Joe Daugherty, established in 1981. Together the Daughertys established Victory Christian School, Victory Bible College, Victory World Missions Training Center, and the Tulsa Dream Center in Tulsa, Oklahoma, which provides food, clothing, medical, educational, and recreational services to the community.

Sharon transitioned the position of Lead Pastor to her son, Paul Daugherty, in 2014. Through the years Sharon has been a worship pastor, songwriter, and continues to teach at Victory Bible College. She and her son have hosted Victory in Jesus, a daily broadcast transmitted via satellite to more than 200 nations. She is the author of several books including Known by Your Fruit, Avoiding Deception, and What Guys See that Girls Don’t or Do They?

Sharon is a graduate of Oral Roberts University with a Bachelor of Music Education Degree. She also attended Christ For the Nations Bible Institute in Dallas, Texas. She serves on the Board of Victory, the Tulsa Dream Center, Oral Roberts University Theology Department, and is the Oklahoma State Director for Christians United for Israel. Sharon is the mother of four children and eight grandchildren. All four of Sharon’s children serve in ministry in various locations of the United States.


America’s Patriotic Victory Gardens

During World War I, a severe food crisis emerged in Europe as agricultural workers were recruited into military service and farms were transformed into battlefields. As a result, the burden of feeding millions of starving people fell to the United States. In March of 1917¬—just weeks before the United States entered the war𠅌harles Lathrop Pack organized the National War Garden Commission to encourage Americans to contribute to the war effort by planting, fertilizing, harvesting and storing their own fruits and vegetables so that more food could be exported to our allies. Citizens were urged to utilize all idle land that was not already engaged in agricultural production—including school and company grounds, parks, backyards or any available vacant lots.

Promoted through propaganda posters advocating that civilians “Sow the seeds of victory” by planting their own vegetables, the war garden movement (as it was originally known) was spread by word of mouth through numerous women’s clubs, civic associations and chambers of commerce, which actively encouraged participation in the campaign. Amateur gardeners were provided with instruction pamphlets on how, when and where to sow, and were offered suggestions as to the best crops to plant, along with tips on preventing disease and insect infestations. The endeavor was so well received that the government turned its attention to distributing canning and drying manuals to help people preserve their surplus crops. In addition to the appeal to men and women, the federal Bureau of Education initiated a U.S. School Garden Army (USSGA) to mobilize children to enlist as “soldiers of the soil.” As a result of these combined efforts, 3 million new garden plots were planted in 1917 and more than 5.2 million were cultivated in 1918, which generated an estimated 1.45 million quarts of canned fruits and vegetables. By the end of World War I, the campaign promoting home gardens—which by then were referred to as “victory gardens”—had dropped off, but many people continued to maintain them.

Shortly after the United States was drawn into the Second World War, victory gardens began to reemerge. Once again, commercial crops were diverted to the military overseas while transportation was redirected towards moving troops and munitions instead of food. With the introduction of food rationing in the United States in the spring of 1942, Americans had an even greater incentive to grow their own fruits and vegetables in whichever locations they could find: small flower boxes, apartment rooftops, backyards or deserted lots of any size. Amid protests from the Department of Agriculture, Eleanor Roosevelt even planted a victory garden on the White House lawn.

Some of the most popular produce grown included beans, beets, cabbage, carrots, kale, kohlrabi, lettuce, peas, tomatoes, turnips, squash and Swiss chard. Through the distribution of several million government-sponsored pamphlets, fledgling farmers were advised to maximize their garden’s productivity by practicing succession planting, and were encouraged to record the germination rates of seeds, along with any diseases or insects they may have encountered, in order to minimize waste and improve their garden’s output the following year.

Throughout both world wars, the Victory Garden campaign served as a successful means of boosting morale, expressing patriotism, safeguarding against food shortages on the home front, and easing the burden on the commercial farmers working arduously to feed troops and civilians overseas. In 1942, roughly 15 million families planted victory gardens by 1944, an estimated 20 million victory gardens produced roughly 8 million tons of food—which was the equivalent of more than 40 percent of all the fresh fruits and vegetables consumed in the United States. Although the government’s promotion of victory gardens ended with the war, a renaissance movement has sprouted up in recent years in support of self-sufficiency and eating seasonally to improve health through local, organic farming and sustainable agriculture.


What Was Grown In Victory Gardens?

The United States government established the U.S. National War Garden Commission and distributed colorful posters and leaflets on the basics of how to garden, what to plant, how and what to use as fertilizers, both here and with our allies.

Vegetables were the largest crop followed by fruits and herb gardens. It is estimated that approximately one-third of the vegetables grown during World War II came from victory gardens.

Along with teaching people how to till and grow vegetables, the government and various women’s magazines also taught how to can and preserve the produce. Sales of pressure cookers increased dramatically.

Seed collection was encouraged, and many garden groups, already experienced in saving seeds, shared seeds, both in the United States and in the United Kingdom.

After World War I, my grandfather preserved their root crops in Pennsylvania by digging a large hole in the ground in the fall. He lined it with burlap and placed various root crops on layers of burlap with sand between them. Each week he would go and dig up a week’s worth of food.

The Smithsonian Institute in their flyer, “Grow Your Own Victory Garden!” (available online), lists the following plants used during the World War II era:

Start indoors: Tomatoes, basil, peppers, carrots, lettuce, kale, onion, peas, radishes

Basil, beans (pole, bush, and lima), corn and popcorn, cucumbers, eggplants, muskmelon, okra, peppers, pumpkin, both winter and summer squash, tomatoes, watermelon.

Fall and Winter Gardens (to extend the growing season)

Beets, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, lettuce, kohlrabi, parsley, parsnips, radish, spinach, swiss chard, turnips.

For more information about Victory Gardens, contact: Smithsonian Gardens, Smithsonian Institution, P.O. Box 37012, Capital Galley, Suite 3300 MRC 506, Washington DC 20013-7012 or www.gardens.si.edu


Histoire

The predecessor to Admiral Nelson's La victoire, the First Rate HMS La victoire commanded by Admiral Sir John Balchin was one of the most technically advanced ships in the world when she disappeared in 1744. Built with three decks, three elaborately decorated open galleries at the stern and armed with up to 110 bronze cannon, La victoire was the last British First Rate to be armed entirely with bronze guns.

This man of war was constructed at Portsmouth Dockyard by master shipwright Joseph Allin between 1726 and 1737. La victoire had a burden of 1,921 tons, a beam of
50ft. 6in. (approx. 15.5m), and a
gun deck 174ft.

One of the most impressive features was her full complement of ordnance, one of the largest consignments of bronze guns ever manufactured. This included 42-pounders, the most powerful and prestigious cannon used in naval warfare. Historically, the La victoire marks the final flourish in the life of bronze cannon on English warships. Following the reign of King George I (r. 1714-1727), the Royal Navy phased out their production in favour of cheaper iron guns .

The ship was technically built to be equipped with:

  • Lower deck guns: 28 x 42-pounders
  • Middle deck guns: 28 x 24-pounders
  • Upper deck guns: 28 x 12-pounders
  • Quarterdeck guns: 12 x 6-pounders
  • Forecastle guns: 4 x 6-pounders

Launched in 1737, the La victoire became the flagship of the Channel Fleet under Sir John Norris in 1741, later serving in 1744 under Sir John Balchin, one of the most respected and longest-serving fighting officers in Royal Navy history .

As the War of Austrian Succession waged, the La victoire's final voyage began in July 1744, when she was dispatched as the flagship of Admiral Balchin, who had been abruptly called out of retirement to rescue a Mediterranean convoy blockaded in the River Tagus by the notorious Brest fleet of Admiral de Rochambeau. If unsuccessful, England risked losing the war. Accompanied by a large fleet of over 30 ships, La victoire arrived in Portugal in late August, liberated the convoy and escorted it safely to Gibraltar. La victoire then pursued the retreating French fleet to Cadiz.

During the course of the La victoire's voyage back to England, the First Rate warship disappeared with all hands on 5 October 1744. Wreckage marked with the name 'Victory' washed ashore on the islands of Alderney, Guernsey and Jersey. This evidence led to the clear belief that she had been lost off the Casquets, a rocky group of islets northwest of Alderney, an area known as the graveyard of the English Channel.

The shipwreck of the La victoire was never found, but Alderney's lighthouse keeper was subjected to a court martial for allegedly failing to keep the lights burning.

After over 250 years of searches conducted by many different expeditions, the shipwreck of the La victoire was finally located in 2008, over 100 km from where contemporary reports said she was lost. Odyssey Marine Exploration's discovery of the wreck La victoire solved one of the greatest mysteries in maritime history and also exonerated the ship's officers and crew as well as the Alderney lighthouse keeper. Odyssey's archaeological surveys reveal that the La victoire likely sank as the result of the violent storm coupled with the ship's top-heavy design, gun-crowded upper decks and possibly rotten timbers.


Today and Yesterday

When I was writing this article, I found it fascinating to look at the old garden plans and watch some of the videos from the 40s. There were a lot of differences from the way many people garden then and the way we garden now.

It reminded me of my grandmother’s gardens, where everything was well tilled and in straight rows with labels. Hoeing was done monotonously by going up and down the rows with a hand or wheeled hoe.

The majority of plants were things that people would cook, preserve or put in a root cellar. They did not plant nearly as many varieties – such as greens – for fresh eating. Lettuce was considered more of a garnish and less of a meal. Kale, endive and mesclun greens were not as common as they are today.

Gardening has changed over the years. So many people have flocked to urban areas that gardeners had to find new methods to grow their favorite foods in a smaller place. Even people on large farms have embraced more efficient methods.

Today there are lots of different ways to grow a garden that don’t require the same investment in time and space. For instance, square foot gardening lets you grow a lot of food in a small space. Raised bed gardens are a smart alternative if you have heavy clay soil, as I do. You can even use water troughs to make a unique and efficient garden!


D-Day Strategy

No one thought victory was sure. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill had pestered Eisenhower and President Franklin Roosevelt for two years before D-Day, pleading that they avoid Normandy and instead pursue a slower, less dangerous strategy, putting more troops into Italy and southern France.

But the Germans had killed tens of millions of civilians and soldiers in the Soviet Union, and the Soviets desperately wanted the Allies to bleed the Germany army by opening up a second front of battle. Eisenhower thought it disgraceful to avoid Normandy, and thought Normandy was the best military move, not only to win but to shorten the war.

The Allies had long planned the invasion for a narrow window in the lunar cycle that would provide both maximum moonlight to illuminate landing places for gliders𠅊nd low tides at dawn to reveal the German’s extensive underwater coastal defenses. Poor weather forced Allied troops to delay the operation a day, cutting into that window. But in a stroke of luck, German forecasters predicted that gale-force winds and rough seas would deter the invasion even longer, so the Nazis redeployed some of their forces away from the coast. German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel even traveled home to celebrate his wife’s birthday, bringing her a pair of Parisian shoes.

On the night before the invasion, Eisenhower penciled himself an “In case of failure” note, to be published if necessary: “If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt, it is mine alone,” he wrote.

“Of all the documents we have from his time in the Army and in his eight years of the presidency, I regard that as our most significant document here,” Rives said of the collection at the Eisenhower Library. “It shows the character of the man who led it all.”

Eisenhower hated war. Years after the war ended, he gave a speech, with a paragraph that can be seen engraved in the marble stone wall surrounding his tomb in Abilene, Kansas.

𠇎very gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. This is not a way of life at all in any true sense.”


Voir la vidéo: La victoire Kerozen Cover by Mervy Willys


Commentaires:

  1. Oeneus

    La question logique

  2. Sheldon

    Cette pensée brillante sera utile.

  3. Travon

    Il y a quelques inconvénients supplémentaires

  4. Styles

    Bravo, une très bonne idée

  5. Natanael

    Ce sujet est tout simplement incomparable :), je l'aime beaucoup.

  6. Kelvan

    Je considère que vous n'avez pas raison. Je suis assuré. Je peux le prouver. Écrivez-moi dans PM, nous en discuterons.



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